1927 “Phonoscope”

1927JuneRadioNews

This cover illustration from the June 1927 issue of Radio News is more or less self-explanatory. But unfortunately, there’s little in the way of explanation given in the magazine, and I’m not aware of this form of video recording ever having been done in practice.

The early mechanical television signals were indeed, sent over the audio channel of AM broadcast stations, so it’s not far fetched to think that the audio could be recorded on a phonograph disk. I think the main problem would be the frequency response of the disk recording. As far as I know, the upper frequency limit for 78 RPM records, especially during that era, was around 5 kHz. I doubt if much video could be packed into 5 kHz bandwidth.

The magazine mentions, with no technical detail, only that John L. Baird was then working on the system, which he called “Phonoscope.”



GE Model 260, 1947

1947June22LifeSeventy years ago today, The June 22, 1947, issue of Life magazine carried this ad for the General Electric model 260 portable.  Shown in the ad is Monica Lewis, billed as a “popular star of radio and Signature Records.”

The set is touted as being self-charging, meaning that the 2 volt lead acid battery was constantly floating. When the set was run from 120 volts, the battery served as an effective filter capacitor. It had pushbutton tuning for the broadcast band, and also covered five shortwave bands, allowing it to “bring in U.S. and foreign stations galore.” It had “rugged military construction, and die-cast aluminum case that’s light as can be.”

The set’s tube lineup consisted of three 1LN5’S, 1LC6, and 1LH4. The internal battery powered a vibrator power supply, and when plugged in, the battery was charged while in the circuit, with a 3Q5GT serving as rectifier.

I actually owned one of these for a time.  By the time I owned it, the battery was long gone and unobtainium.  Without the battery in the circuit, the set did have a very pronounced 60 cycle hum.  It pulled in a few strong local stations, but shortwave was no longer an option.

Monica Lewis, who was 25 when this ad came out, went on to become the singing voice of “Miss Chiquita Banana,” a cartoon television commercial character. She made her way to the big screen, where she appeared in movies such as Airport ’77 and Earthquake. She died in 2015 at the age of 93.

You can see a video of the model 260 (along with a similar model that covered only the broadcast band) here:

And you can see and hear Miss Chiquita Banana here:

 



Last Minute Eclipse Hotel Options for Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, and Nebraska

This page has been updated through July 6 and shows current hotel availability through that date.

For those planning to view the eclipse on August 21, 2017, hotel rooms are filling up fast. If you plan to travel to view the eclipse and want to stay in a hotel, you need to act fast. Yesterday, I listed inexpensive hotels which still have rooms available in and very close to the eclipse area. Those rooms are still available in many cities, extending from Lincoln, NE, to Charleston, SC. You can see a sampling of available hotels at this link.  I have more information about the eclipse, including where to order your eclipse glasses at this link.

If you live in the eastern half of the United States, you are probably within a day’s driving distance to view the eclipse, and nearby hotel rooms are still available. However, this is no longer the case if you live in the western half of the United States. There might be one or two reasonably priced hotel rooms left, but I can’t find them. West of Lincoln, Nebraska, it is no longer able to make a hotel reservation within the eclipse area, unless you want to spend hundreds of dollars per night.

Fortunately, however, you do still have some options. There are still a few hotels within a few hours drive of the eclipse. You can drive close to your final destination to a reasonably priced hotel, and then get up early on Monday morning and drive to where the eclipse will be visible. None of the hotels listed on this page will allow you to view the eclipse from the hotel. But for those in the western U.S., the cities listed below are among your last options to stay in a hotel to view the eclipse. These are suggestions for bases for your eclipse voyage as it passes through Oregon, Idaho, Wyoming, and western Nebraska. All of these cities are relatively close to the path of totality, and have good road access for the final leg of your journey on the morning of August 21.

Update (July 2):  The hotels on this page are outside the total eclipse, some of them significantly so.  Travel times to view the eclipse from these hotels might be significantly greater than normal on the morning of August 21.  This is particularly true on north-south interstate highways such as Interstate 5 and Interstate 15.  If you plan to stay at any of these hotels on Sunday night, you will need to leave for your final viewing position very early, probably in the middle of the night Sunday night.  For traffic predictions, please visit my “Planning for Eclipse Gridlock” page.

For all of the cities listed below, I have a link to one hotel that still has rooms available. Most are $100 per night or less. In most cases, additional hotels are available. By clicking on the link, you can view other hotels in the area.

Portland, OR/Vancouver WA

While the total Eclipse will not be visible in Portland, it is only about 30 miles north of the path of totality. Interstate 5 gives convenient access to the eclipse. If you drive south to Salem or Albany, you will be close to the center of the eclipse’s path.

Update, July 17:  The hotel shown below is the last in the Portland/Vancouver area under $100.  It is no longer available, but by clicking on the link, you can find other area hotels starting at about $200.

Value Motel

Value Motel

 


Umatilia, OR

Umatilia is also north of the path of the eclipse, but provides relatively easy interstate access. You can take Interstate 84 137 miles to Baker City, OR, or continue on to Lime, OR, which is right on the center line for maximum viewing. You can also head south on US 395 through the Umatilia National Forest to Mt. Vernon, OR.

Update (June 28):  Hotel rooms in Umatilia now appear to be completely booked.  Rooms are still available in Kennewick, Washington, which is a 162 mile drive on Interstates 82 and 84 to Baker City.  As of July 9, rooms are still available at this hotel for about $64 per night:

Super 8 Kennewick

Super 8 Kennewick

 


Ogden, UT

There don’t seem to be any hotel rooms available in the state of Idaho anywhere close to the eclipse path. The best option for viewing from Idaho seems to be Ogden, Utah, which is about 170 miles south of the eclipse. From Ogden, you can take Interstate 15 to Idaho Falls, ID, which is close to the center line.  Note that traffic on I-15 is expected to be extremely heavy, and you should plan to leave Ogden very early Monday morning or late Sunday night.

As of June 20, rooms were available in this hotel for about $55 a night:

Motel 6 Ogden, 21st Street
Motel 6 Ogden, 21st Street


Buffalo, WY

Casper, WY, is directly on the center line of the eclipse, and all hotel rooms in the city seem to have been sold out months ago. However, rooms are still available 113 miles to the north in Buffalo. Interstate 25 provides convenient access. As of June 20, rooms were available in this hotel for about $44 a night:

Lake Stop Resort - Caravan Park
Lake Stop Resort – Caravan Park


Worland, WY

Update (July 5):  No rooms are available in Worland.


Rapid City, SD

All hotels in western Nebraska seem to be completely booked. But if you stay in Rapid City, it’s a 156 mile drive south on US 385 to Alliance, NE, which is right on the center of the eclipse’s path. As of June 20, rooms were available in this hotel for about $76 a night:

Motel 6 Rapid City
Motel 6 Rapid City


Topeka, KS

From Topeka, you can drive north about a hundred miles on US 75 to the path of totality.  There might be heavy traffic on US 75, due to this area being the closest route for most of Texas and Oklahoma.  Rooms are also available in nearby Manhattan, KS, and Junction City, KS.  The following Topeka hotel has rooms available for under $40:

Motel 6 Topeka Northwest

Motel 6 Topeka Northwest


 

Omaha, NE

From Omaha,  drive west 53 miles on Interstate 80 to Lincoln. For best viewing, you can continue on Interstate 80 to Grand Island, or head south on US 77 to Beatrice.  Another option from Omaha is to drive south on Interstate 29 toward St. Joseph, MO.  While there will probably be heavy traffic northbound on I-29 from Kansas City and points further south, there will probably be less southbound traffic.  As of June 20, rooms were available in this hotel for about $50 a night:

Travel Inn Omaha
Travel Inn Omaha
 (Use coupon code TRAVEL8).



Bombardment of Fort Stevens, 1942

Shell crater resulting form Japanese shelling on Fort Stevens. - NARA - 299678.jpg

Servicemen examining a shell crater after the attack. Wikipedia image.

Today marks the 75th anniversary of the Bombardment of Fort Stevens,
the only instance during the war of a U.S. military installation within the continental United States being attacked.

The fort, which dated to the Civil War, was on the Oregon side of the mouth of the Columbia River. On June 21, 1942, the Japanese submarine I-25, which had been assigned to attack enemy shipping, entered U.S. coastal waters and followed fishing boats to avoid mines.

Late that night, Commander Tagami Meiji ordered the crew to surface at the mouth of the Columbia. The sub then fired a total of seventeen 5.5 inch explosive shells.

Upon the first sign of the attack, the fort’s commander had ordered an immediate blackout. Furthermore, he ordered his men not to return fire, since doing so would reveal the base’s location.

The strategy proved effective, and the only real damage done was the severing of some telephone cables. Most of the shells landed in a nearby baseball field or a swamp.

The sub was spotted by Army Air Corps planes on a training mission, and they called in the sub’s location for a bomber to attack. The bomber spotted the sub, but the sub was able to dodge the bombs and submerge undamaged.

The fort remained an active military base until 1947.  It is now part of Fort Stevens State Park.



Eclipse Hotel Update

For those thinking of viewing the eclipse on August 21, it is important to make your travel plans now, since hotels in and near the total eclipse are rapidly filling up. Most cities on and near the path are now completely booked, but some rooms are still available in the following cities at a reasonable price. All of the hotels listed here still have rooms available as of June 20 at a cost of about $50 per night or less.

This page has been updated through July 19.  At this point, I am listing hotels under $100, since most rooms in the $50 range are now gone.

For more details, please see my earlier post. Please note that some of these hotels might be near the path of totality, but not directly in it. So you might have to make a short drive from some of these hotels on Monday morning.

And to avoid shortages, don’t forget to order your eclipse glasses while they are still available and at a low price.  For more information, see my earlier post.

Update:  I also have links to available campsites, for both tents and RV’s, at this link.  For hotel options in the western U.S., please visit this link.

Lincoln, NE

Update (July 4):  The last hotel room in Lincoln is now gone.  Your best option is now to stay in Omaha and drive west on Interstate 80 early the morning of August 21.  Drive at least as far as Lincoln, but for best viewing, continue west to Grand Island or south to Beatrice.  Rooms were still available at the following Omaha hotel for about $50 per night:

Travel Inn Omaha
Travel Inn Omaha

 


Kansas City, MO:

As of July 18, hotels in Kansas City are filling up, and many of the hotels previously listed here are no longer available. Most rooms in Kansas City, MO, are full, but rooms are available in Kansas City, KS. Most of the remaining hotels seem to be otside the area of totality, and you will need to drive north or northeast the day of the eclipse. Note:  these hotels are close to, but might not be directly within, the eclipse path of totality.  To view the total eclipse, you will need to move to the northeast of Kansas City.  Extremely heavy traffic is expected, particularly on Interstate 35, and you will need to leave the hotel very early on the morning of August 21.  For more information on traffic predictions, please visit my Eclipse Gridlock page.

As of July 18, the following hotels are available under $100:

Arrowhead Inn

Arrowhead Inn (Use coupon code TRAVEL8)

American Motel Kansas City, Kansas


American Motel Kansas City, Kansas

 

 


Columbia, MO

Update (July 17):  The following hotel is no longer available, but by following this link and checking for availability on August 20, you will be able to see  a list of other hotels with rooms still available.

Budget Inn

Budget Inn


Jefferson City, MO:

Update (June 28): All hotels in Jefferson City now appear to be completely booked.


St. Louis, MO:

The following hotels are close to, but not necessarily within, the path of the total eclipse.  The path of totality is located southwest of St. Louis, and to view the total eclipse you may need to drive southwest the morning of August 21.  Traffic may be extremely heavy.  For predictions of eclipse driving conditions, please visit my Eclipse Gridlock page.

Motel 6 Hazelwood
Motel 6 Hazelwood

Crosslands St. Louis - Airport - N. Lindbergh Blvd.
Crosslands St. Louis – Airport – N. Lindbergh Blvd.
 (Use coupon code TRAVEL8).


Nashville, TN:

Update (July 18): As of today, rooms in Nashville are 96% booked, and only a few rooms under $100 are available, including the following:

Knights Inn Nashville - Antioch

Knights Inn Nashville – Antioch

Americas Best Value Inn-Nashville/Hermitage

Americas Best Value Inn-Nashville/Hermitage

 


Anderson, SC

Update:  As of July 7, all inexpensive rooms in Anderson are booked, although there are a handful for about $200 per night.  Inexpensive rooms remain in Greenville.


Greenville, SC:

Motel 6 Greenville SC

Motel 6 Greenville SC
 (Use coupon code TRAVEL8)


Columbia, SC.:

Update: As of July 17, no hotel rooms are available in Columbia, SC.  The following hotel was the last to have rooms available.  By clicking on the link, if any other rooms in the area become available, they will be listed.

Days Inn and Suite Airport West Columbia

Days Inn and Suite Airport West Columbia

Charleston, SC.: 

Update:  As of July 12, all hotels in Charleston appear to be booked.

 

 

 



1947 One Tube Mailable Radio

1947JunePS

We previously featured a 1940 crystal set that could be mailed as a post card. And today, we up the ante to this mailable one-tube radio from the June 1947 issue of Popular Science. This one won’t go as a post card, but at just a quarter of an inch thick, it is small enough to mail in a 6 by 9 inch manila envelope.

The set used a subminiature 2E32 pentode tube. In addition to the radio, you would need a 22-1/2 volt B battery, as well as a penlight cell to light the filament.

The flat coil is wound on a 4 inch cardboard disk. The 92 turns are tapped at various points. By connecting to different taps, and by adjusting the trimmer capacitor, the set would tune most of the broadcast band. Even though the set did not use regeneration, it was said to be able to pull in strong local stations with high impedance headphones (also not included inside the envelope).

1947JunePSschematic



1917 Boys’ Life: Signaling and Beans

1917JuneBLCover

A hundred years ago this month, both the front and back cover of the June 1917 issue of Boys’ Life magazine featured signaling methods. In the cover art shown above (with no attribution to the artist that I could find), a Scout is shown relaying a semaphore message to a distant point.

1917JuneBLBackNot to be outdone, the back cover, an ad for Colgate toothpaste, used International Morse Code to proclaim the messsage, “I BRING GOOD TEETH GOOD HEALTH.”  Since the nation was at war, the ad also reminded Scouts “how soldiers and sailors benefit from good teeth, and that they must have them to pass the physical examination.”

But the wartime service promoted by most of the magazine was the Scout’s duty to feed the nation and the troops.

It proclaimed that “no organization in the United States acted more promptly than the Boy Scouts of America when Congress declared, on April 5th, that a state of war existed between our country and Germany.  ‘Be Prepared’ is the Boy Scout motto, and more than a quarter of a million Scouts proved they WERE prepared.”  One of the first actions suggested was that in every large city, the Scouts should mobilize, march to the City Hall, and offer their services to the Mayor.  According to the magazine, many Scouts immediately did exactly that.

Mobilized Scouts offering their services at an unnamed city hall.

Mobilized Scouts offering their services at an unnamed city hall.

But the biggest task undertaken by Scouts was to help win the war through the gardening movement. As soon as the U.S. Department of Agriculture announced that every citizen was needed to increase the food supply, the National Headquarters of the BSA issued an emergency circular urging every scout to start a garden and persuade nine other people to do the same.

The slogan adopted was, “every scout to feed a soldier.” It meant that every Scout was expected to raise enough food to feed himself, thus freeing up enough food to feed the soldier.

Almost immediately, National Headquarters fired off a telegram to London, to none other than Herbert Clark Hoover, who was already “famous for his great efficiency in managing the enormous relief work among stricken peoples of Europe.” The cable read:

Two hundred fifty thousand Boy Scouts of America tender services as your aides as producers and conservers of food as service to our country.

Mr. Hoover immediately cabled back his response, and his response was that Scouts should raise beans:

The prime service of our Country in this War is ships and food, and we can here display the true American ability at great efforts.

In order to provide the food necessary we must from this moment eliminate all waste and stimulate food production at every point. We must send to our Allies more wheat, corn, beans, meat, bacon and lard than we have ever sent before if their men are to fight and their women and children to live; and our people must economize and eat other things.

Among these foodstuffs couldn’t the Scouts take as their own province the stimulation of bean production, for there is not only a great shortage at Europe and at home, but they are the best of foods. Let them help make America able to export ten times as many beans as she ever exported before. To do this, let the Boy Scouts see to it that they are planted everywhere, so that the biggest bean crop ever known shall be the war contribution of the Boy Scouts to America and her Allies.

(Signed) Herbert C. Hoover.

Theodore Roosevelt, upon receiving a copy of Hoover’s telegram, signaled his assent: “I think Mr. Hoover’s suggestion that the Scouts take as their own province the stimulation of bean production is particularly good. Let each Scout start a garden and thereby help feed the soldiers.”

Scouts clearing idle land in preparation for a crop. The caption notes that fire is a useful ally, but the Scouts watch it closely. In a month, this field was to be covered with navy beans.

Scouts clearing idle land in preparation for a crop. The caption notes that fire is a useful ally, but the Scouts watch it closely. In a month, this field was to be covered with navy beans.

The magazine noted that navy or field beans were an easy crop to grow. They would show good yields even on poor soil or thin soils. They could be planted late, after the rush of other planting had subsided, and required only a third of the cultivation required of corn. With a good season and average care, a yield of 10 to 25 bushels per acre was to be expected. Their high food value and ease of storage made them an excellent war crop.

The magazine also noted that many Scout camps would turn into farms. Since there was a scarcity of farm help, the Scouts would help to fill the gap. Even though they would learn to plant and pick, there would still be plenty of fun after the day’s work was over.

Finally, the magazine announced that the BSA would be offering a War Service Emblem for Scouts who were responsible for starting ten gardens or inducing ten people to increase their garden acreage.



1937 Admiral 955-8K Chairside

1937JuneRadioRetailingShown here from 80 years ago this month is the Admiral model 955-8K chairside radio, as it appeared in the June 1937 issue of Radio Retailing.

The three band set featured automatic tuning, and in addition to the standard broadcast band, covered police and international shortwave bands. The walnut cabinet stood 24 inches high and featured an 8 inch electrodynamic speaker.

The semicircular front featured a built-in ashtray. The eight tube lineup consisted of 6A7, 6D6, 75, 80, and two each of 76 and 42.

The accompanying ad billed this and the rest of Admiral’s lineup as “America’s smartest radios for 1938.”



Get Your Eclipse Glasses and Hotel Rooms Now!

Path of Totality. NASA image.

Path of Totality. NASA image.

On August 21, 2017, a total eclipse of the sun will be visible as it passes across the United States from Coast to Coast. This is the first time an eclipse has been visible from coast to coast since 1918. I have seen partial eclipses, and they are a somewhat interesting phenomenon. However, I have never witnessed a total eclipse of the sun, and my family plans to travel to Nebraska to view it.

The total eclipse will be visible only on a band about 70 miles wide stretching from Oregon to South Carolina.  If you are not within this band, you might not even notice the eclipse if you’re not watching for it.  But within this band, the sky will become dark, stars will be visible, and only the sun’s corona will be visible.

During the approximately two minutes of totality, it is safe to view the sun with the naked eye.  But even if only a tiny portion of the sun is visible, then it is necessary to use eye protection.  Therefore, if you are planning to view the eclipse, two things are necessary.

1.  Get Your Eclipse Glasses!

First of all, you will want to get a set of eclipse glasses, such as the ones shown here.  With these glasses, which cost about $2, you will be able to safely view the eclipse if you are not in the path of totality, or if you want to look at the sun before and after totality.

During a 2015 partial eclipse in England, there was a shortage of the eclipse glasses.  In the days leading up to the eclipse, thousands searched in vain to find a pair, but there were none available, or they were available only at grossly inflated prices.  These glasses are still readily available online at reasonable prices.  I recently purchased 10 pairs of the glasses shown here, and they were shipped to me in about a week.   The total price for 10 pairs, including shipping, was about $17.  I’ll post a review in a few days, but they appear to be well made for what they are, and they have the appropriate ISO safety certification.

Unfortunately, I don’t know anyone else who has ordered in advance.  I suspect that, just like in England, there will be a huge demand at the last minute.  Stores won’t have them, and it will be too late to order online, or online suppliers will also run out.  Therefore, I strongly recommend that you order now while they are still available.  The set of ten that I ordered can be ordered from the following Amazon link:

Numerous other options are available on Amazon at this link.

In the Twin Cities area, I am only aware of these stores selling eclipse glasses.  They are:

2.  Make Your Hotel Reservations!

The other item you will want to consider is traveling to view the eclipse.   The partial eclipse that will be visible in most of the United States is certainly interesting, but for most, the total eclipse, visible only in a 70 mile wide band, is a once in a lifetime experience.  Most Americans are within a day’s drive, and it’s certainly worth the drive.  Surprisingly, some hotel rooms are still available, even though many cities along the path have been booked solid for months.  My family will be staying in Hastings, Nebraska, although that city is now completely sold out.

If all else fails, I would recommend simply driving to the path of totality, and sleeping in your car if necessary.  However, rooms are still available in many cities on and close to the path of totality.  The following table will give you some idea of what is available.  As you can see, the last hotel room in Casper, Wyoming, is a modest motel going for $800 a night.  But even though rooms are filling up fast, the following table gives you some idea of what is available.

This table shows availability at Hotels.com, as of June 16.  As you can see, many cities still have bargain hotels available.  This will certainly change as the eclipse gets closer, so. I encourage you to do as I did and make your reservation now.

I have included a link to the least expensive hotel in the city.  In some cases, this hotel might be a few miles from the path of totality, so you will still have to drive to the location of the eclipse.  But by booking a nearby hotel, you will make the process much easier, since you won’t have to worry about driving all night or sleeping in your car.  This chart shows availability for the night of August 20, the night before the eclipse.  The time of the eclipse will vary by location, but will be around midday on Monday, August 21.

As of today, inexpensive rooms are still available in Lincoln, NE, Kansas City, MO, Columbia, MO, Jefferson City, MO, St. Louis, MO, Paducah, KY, Nashville, TN, Greenville, NC, Columbia, SC, and Charleston, SC.  But I guarantee that will no longer be true in a couple of weeks!

Before I made my own hotel reservation last year, I did check on campground availability.  At that time, the campgrounds I checked were already sold out.  However, you may wish to check on campgrounds, including state parks on or near the path of totality.  (See the list of Nebraska State Parks at the end of this post.)

The links below are to the least expensive hotel in the area, as of June 16.  There might be other hotels that are more suitable or closer to the path of totality.  But this will give you an idea of what is available.

For constantly update hotel information, please visit the following posts:

City Lowest price City Percent Booked Link to Least Expensive Hotel
Salem, OR Not Available 100.00%
Jackson, WY Not Available 100.00%
Casper, WY $801 96%
1st Interstate Motel
Glendo, WY Not Available 100.00%
Alliance, NE Not Available 100.00%
Grand Island, NE Not Available 100.00%
Lincoln, NE $43.00 76.00%
Americas Best Value Inn Lincoln Airport
Kansas City, MO $42.00
Super 8 Lenexa Overland Pk Area
Columbia, MO $43.00 78.00%
Frontier Motel
Jefferson City, MO $50.00 Almost 100%
California Motel
St. Louis, MO $39.00
Motel 6 Hazelwood
Cape Giraredeau, MO Not Available 100.00%
Carbondale, IL Not Available 100.00%
Paducah, KY $180.00 98.00%
Wingfield Inn
Nashville, TN $50.00 72.00%
Super 8 Nashville Downtown
Greenville, NC $44.00
Days Inn Washington NC
Columbia, SC $42.00 74.00%
Budget Inn Express-columbia
Charleston, SC $60.00 93.00%
Econo Lodge North

 

Nebraska State Parks

It does not appear that there are any reservable campsites at Nebraska State Parks in the path of totality. But the following Nebraska State parks have sites available for reservation as of June 16. Most of these are north of the path of totality, some as much as a hundred miles or more. But for those visiting Nebraska from the north, one of these parks might be a good option, since you can camp there, and then drive to view the eclipse Monday morning.

  • Branched Oak SRA
  • Calamus SRA
  • Chadron SP
  • Eugene T. Mahoney SP
  • Fort Robinson SP
  • Fremont SRA
  • Lake Wanahoo State Recreation Area
  • Lewis and Clark SRA
  • Louisville SRA
  • Niobrara State Park
  • Platte River SP
  • Ponca SP
  • Rock Creek Station SHP
  • Two Rivers SRA
  • Willow Creek SRA



Using Your Flashlight in a Blackout, 1942

1942June15Life

75 years ago, Americans were preparing for the possibilities of blackouts in case of enemy air raid. In this day’s issue of Life magazine, June 15, 1942, Eveready carried this ad explaining the importance of keeping a flashlight, and how to use it during a blackout.

The ad first admonished that every home should have one or more flashlights, but that before buying new ones, old ones should be inspected to see if they could be repaired. In many cases, only a new bulb or lens, or a fresh set of batteries was required. The flashlight should be kept in a convenient accessible spot, and always put back.

During a blackout, it was important to never point the light toward an unshielded window, skylight, or open door. Outside, the flashlight should be shielded. This could be accomplished by covering the lens with two layers of newspaper.

If unshielded, the flashlight should be used outside only when absolutely necessary, taking care to never point it even slightly upward, and never toward reflective objects.

And, of course, the flashlight should have Eveready batteries, with an extra set of spares.