I am able to make out the caption for the item between the vacuum cleaner and the wall outlet, and it’s marked “rheostat.” Presumably, it’s set to blow air into the combustion chamber, and the young Soviet mad scientist can adjust the intensity of the furnace with the rheostat.
Contrary to first impression, the logo at the top of the page is Ют, the abbreviation for the name of the magazine. But if it looked like HOT at first glance, we don’t blame you. This contraption will indeed get hot!
We put this item in the “science fair ideas” category. However, we do recommend that before duplicating this project, young scientists should have the article translated to see if it contains any safety warnings. I suspect some might be called for.